Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig, Germany
Quantum technologies are currently in the focus of scientific and industrial developments as reflected, e.g., by huge international collaboration initiatives and frameworks like the Quantum Flagship of the European Commission, the latter as a main driver for the “quantum revolution” in Europe. In metrology - the science of measurement - the exploitation and application of quantum systems plays a significant role for the realisation of quantum-based standards, sensors, and measurement systems. The revision of the International System of Units (SI) in 2019 has further enhanced the significance of quantum electrical metrology, as the quantum electrical standards based on the Planck constant and the elementary charge now enable the primary realization of the base electrical units at highest accuracy levels.
In this presentation, I will start with an outline on the development and evolution of the SI. Next, I will elucidate main concepts and methodologies of quantum electrical metrology being based on quantum electrical effects, i.e., the quantum Hall, the Josephson and the single-electron transport effects. The talk will comprise aspects of electrical unit realisation by quantum-based standards for the ohm, the volt, and the ampere, as well as applications of state-of-the-art quantum-based measurement systems in science, measurement laboratories, and in industry. Furthermore, topical developments in materials and fundamental science will be included which aim at the realisation of advanced, robust metrology systems for a broad field of applications in practical environments. Besides core metrological topics, I will also briefly touch on metrology aspects and applications in other quantum technological fields like in quantum sensing and in quantum computing.
Hansjörg Scherer is the head of the department “Electrical Quantum Metrology” at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig, Germany, and Vice-Chair and coordinator of the section “Quantum Electronics” of the European Metrology Network “Quantum Technologies” (EMN-Q) since 2019. He holds Diploma and PhD degrees in physics from Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany) and is with PTB since 1995. His scientific background in the fields of electrical quantum metrology includes the physics and applications of the quantum Hall effect, single-electron transport devices with focus on quantum metrology triangle experiments, quantum-based realizations of the ampere, and small-current metrology. In 2018, along with three colleagues from PTB he was awarded the Helmholtz prize for the development of new instrumentation and methods in the field of traceable measurement and generation of small direct currents. Recently, his focus is on research towards the metrological application of the quantum Hall effect in novel “Dirac cone” materials including graphene and topological insulators.